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Chemical Components of Fungus Comb from Indo-Malayan Termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen Mound and Its Bioactivity against Wood-Staining Fungi

Abstract Recently, the architectural and physical properties of the fungus comb from subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae) mounds had been studied and it is important to determine its chemical profile as well as to evaluate its anti-staining-fungi activity. The results showed that fungus comb of M. gilvus has a high crude ash (30.57%), fiber (25.46%), starch (7.76%), protein (5.80%, 5.53% amino acid), acid-insoluble ash (3.45%), and fat (0.73%). It also contained phenol hydroquinone, steroids, terpenoids, and saponin compounds. Seventeen amino acids were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, of which arginine, leucine, glutamate, and aspartic acid were the majority. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the n-hexane extract consists of several types of fatty acid derivatives. Meanwhile, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts were primarily phenol groups with 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) at the highest relative concentration.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Senescence and Osteogenesis

AbstractMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stem cells with the potential ability to differentiate into various cells and the ability to self-renew and resemble fibroblasts. These cells can adhere to plastic to facilitate the culture process. MSCs can be used in research into tissue biotechnology and rejuvenation medicine. MSCs are also beneficial in recipient tissue and differentiate as a breakthrough strategy through paracrine activity. Many databases have shown MSC-based treatment can be beneficial in the reduction of osteogenesis induced by senescence. In this article, we will discuss the potential effect of MSCs in senescence cells related to osteogenesis. Keywords: cellular senescence; mesenchymal stem cells; MSCs senescence; osteogenesis

A rare case: Vesicoureteral reflux in Indonesian young adult with neurogenic bladder and chronic kidney disease stage 4

Abstract Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adolescence and young adult. It can be a congenital or an acquired anomaly and its uncommon in adult life.Case presentation: A 19th years old male with neurogenic bladder, VUR grade 4, CKD stage 4, malnutrition, and short stature. Radiological examinations show a spastic neurogenic bladder, cystitis, right VUR grade 4. Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) results were bilateral severe hydronephrosis due to post-renal causes. This patient had a history of myelocele excision at the age of 1.5 years. He had recurrent urinary tract infection with CKD stage 4.Discussion: The diagnosis of VUR and neurogenic bladder in CKD stage 4 is a rare case in nephrology.Conclusion: Indonesian male confirms of diagnosis VUR grade 4, neurogenic bladder, and CKD stage 4.Keywords: Vesicoureteral reflux, Neurogenic bladder, Chronic kidney disease

Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Cayratia trifolia on Histologically Kidney Mouse Model

Abstract - This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cayratia trifolia ethanolic extract on histological mouse kidney models. A total of 12 adult male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into two groups, comprising six mice in each group. The first group of 6 mice provided as the control group and received 25 ml/kg BW orally sodium carboxymethylcellulose during 6 days.The second group, 6 mice was administered 50 mg/kg BW of C. trifolia ethanolic extract in sodium carboxymethylcellulose orally during 6 days. The present study, we have performed histological kidney mice evaluation after 6 days of C. trifolia ethanolic extract administration. The histological mice kidney was quantified in term of tubular epithelium, glomerular and focal mononuclear infiltrate. The effect of administration of C. trifolia ethanolic extract on histological kidney of mice appeared normal tubular morphology in cortical and medullary regions of kidney in administered C. trifolia ethanolic extract mice, there was no kidney change histologically showed normal architecture of the glomerulus and tubules, while in control mice group, kidney histologically first marked with mononuclear cell infiltration, tubular necrosis, glomerular congestion and hyaline casts.

Thromboembolic involvement and its possible pathogenesis in COVID-19 mortality: lesson from post-mortem reports

Abstract. – The emergence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide since its initial breakout. With increasing reports from clinical observations and autopsy findings, it became clear that the disease causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as well as a broad spectrum of systemic and multiorgan pathologies, including angiopathy, endothelialitis, and thrombosis. Coagulopathy is associated with the activity of megakaryocytes, which play crucial roles in modulating the platelet homeostasis. Only a few autopsy reports include findings on thrombosis formation and the presence of megakaryocytes. Here we review and summarize the possible involvement and the pathophysiology of the thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients based on post-mortem reports. We reviewed post-mortem reports from March 2020 to September 2020.