Artikel Ilmiah

Antimicrobial activities of fungus comb extracts isolated from Indomalayan termite (Macrotermes gilvus Hagen) mound

Abstract Incorporating antimicrobial components into food packaging materials can prevent microbial contamination. Fungus combs could be an alternative source of natural antimicrobial agents. In this study, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were obtained from fungus combs isolated from Indomalayan termite (Macrotermes gilvus Hagen) mound. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage microorganisms including Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution. Results showed that ethyl acetate extract formed the largest diameter inhibition zone for all tested bacteria and fungi, exhibited antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively, and suppressed A. flavus and A. niger with an MIC value of 0.78 mg/mL.

Dialysis Membranes for Acute Kidney Injury

Abstract Mortality and morbidity rates among critically ill septic patients having acute kidney injury (AKI) are very high, considering the total number of deaths after their admission. Inappropriate selection of the type of continuous renal replacement therapy and inadequate therapy become the immediate causes of these issues. Dialysis is a commonly used treatment intended to prolong the life of AKI patients. Dialysis membranes, which are the core of dialysis treatment, must be properly selected to ensure fair treatment to the patients. The accumulation of certain types of molecules must be dealt with using the right membrane. Whether it is low-flux, high-flux, or adsorptive type, the dialysis membrane should be chosen depending on the condition of the patients. The selection of dialysis membranes should also be based on their effect on the treatment outcomes and well-being. All these options are needed to serve the patients of different clinical settings.

Infrapatellar Fat Pad-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Alternative Cell Source for Cell-based Osteoarthritis Treatment

A Systematic Review on Preclinical and Clinical Evidence ABSTRACT Introduction: There is still no definitive treatment to either inhibit the degradation process or restore the damaged cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). Various cell sources have been studied and in vitro studies showed that infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cells (IFPDMSCs) exhibit higher chondrogenic potential than other adipose-derived cells. Still, very few in vivo studies on IFPDMSCs for cartilage healing in OA have been reported. Aims: This systematic review will analyze the therapeutic potential of IFPDMSCs for cartilage healing in osteoarthritis from preclinical and clinical studies. Design, Methods, and Data Source: Using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database up to November 30, 2020, a systematic review according to PRISMA reporting guideline was conducted on IFPDMSCs application to treat osteoarthritis in vivo studies. Inclusion criteria were in vivo preclinical and clinical studies from January 2010 to November 2020 involving the OA model or cases using IFPDMSCs to promote healing.

Severe Covid-19 infection in a kidney transplant recipient treated with lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and dexamethasone

Abstract Severe COVID-19 infection management for a recipient of kidney transplant has debatable prognosis and treatment. We described the case of a COVID-19 infected 70 year old female, previously had renal transplantation in 2017. The patient took immunosuppressive agents as routine drugs for transplant recipient status and received lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone daily at the hospitalization. Specific question arises about renal transplant recipients being infected by COVID-19 - whether the infection will get worse compared to those without immunosuppresive agent. In this case, author decided to stop the immunosuppressive agent followed administration of combination lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone that gives a good clinical impact change to patient's condition after once getting worsened and mechanically ventilated.

Chemical Components of Fungus Comb from Indo-Malayan Termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen Mound and Its Bioactivity against Wood-Staining Fungi

Abstract Recently, the architectural and physical properties of the fungus comb from subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae) mounds had been studied and it is important to determine its chemical profile as well as to evaluate its anti-staining-fungi activity. The results showed that fungus comb of M. gilvus has a high crude ash (30.57%), fiber (25.46%), starch (7.76%), protein (5.80%, 5.53% amino acid), acid-insoluble ash (3.45%), and fat (0.73%). It also contained phenol hydroquinone, steroids, terpenoids, and saponin compounds. Seventeen amino acids were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, of which arginine, leucine, glutamate, and aspartic acid were the majority. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the n-hexane extract consists of several types of fatty acid derivatives. Meanwhile, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts were primarily phenol groups with 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) at the highest relative concentration.