#kompas.id


Industry 4.0 and Health Services

President Jokowi has chosen Dr. Terawan Agus Putranto as the health minister for the second term of his administration. What is the direction of the Health Ministry’s health policy to answer challenges in the future? Before getting there, it is better for us to review the achievements of the health sector over the past five years. The most monumental breakthrough of the first period of Jokowi’s administration was the application of national health insurance through the Social Security Management Agency (BPJS). This is arguably a revolutionary policy in the health sector. Nevertheless, this policy still bears serious problems. The main problem that has not been resolved until now is the overdraft of BPJS financing. Hundreds of partner hospitals have not been paid by BPJS, causing some to go bankrupt. The commotion of the BPJS deficit has colored news throughout the year. Indonesia has the second highest prevelance in ASEAN (under Timor Leste) in terms of the number of stunted children due to lack of nutrition. This is certainly not something to be proud of.

Coronavirus Turns over Immunity into Weapon that Backfires

How does this virus attack the human body, and why can it cause victims to die very quickly – in 4 to 7 days? In patients with HIV/AIDS it generally takes years to become fatal.   Why is this new type of coronavirus so deadly? How does this virus attack the human body, and why can it cause victims to die very quickly – in 4 to 7 days? In patients with HIV/AIDS it generally takes years to become fatal. If HIV/AIDS is like a guerrilla war, Covid-19 destroys victims in a blitzkrieg. The damage caused is described in a video circulating in social media. Doctor Keith Mortman, head of thoracic surgery at George Washington University Hospital, used 3D modeling to show how quickly Covid-19 attacks the lungs, from the stage of flooding the alveoli to the stage where the lungs stop functioning. The whole process from the beginning of the infection up to lung failure only takes a week if the patient has no immunity. “I want people to see this and understand what can be done. People need to take this seriously,” he says in the video.

Otopsi Jenazah Korban Covid-19

Pada Covid-19 ini, otopsi kembali menunjukkan peran pentingnya. Otopsi telah menghasilkan beberapa temuan penting yang sangat membantu pemetaan keganasan karakter virus super baru bernama lain SARS-CoV-2 ini. Otopsi jenazah penderita Covid-19 belum terdengar dilakukan di Indonesia. Mungkin sudah ada yang melakukan, tetapi hasilnya belum dibeberkan kepada publik. Bukannya para dokter kita tak ingin belajar lebih dalam dan melihat sendiri rekam jejak perilaku ganas virus super itu pada organ dalam manusia. Namun, kendala budaya dan religius serta skala prioritas menyebabkan otopsi sulit dilakukan di saat genting ini. Untuk pasien meninggal, protokol pemulasaraan jenazah harus dilakukan secepatnya, sebisa mungkin kurang dari empat jam sudah dikubur. Para dokter sangat sibuk memprioritaskan penanganan pasien yang perlu ditolong. Jumlah pasien positif terus membanjiri rumah sakit, terutama di DKI Jakarta, Jatim, Jateng, Kalsel, dan Sulsel. Bahkan per 18 Juli lalu, yang positif dan meninggal di Indonesia sudah melampaui China, eks ”juara dunia” di minggu-minggu awal pandemi.

Responding to the Pandemic Modeling

Ratna Megawangi’s article, “Coronavirus and Panic Statistics” (Kompas, 20/6/2020), is interesting to discuss. The article comments on the prediction of the spread of the coronavirus by mathematical modeling, as widely presented by experts.   In particular, Ratna reviewed predictions made by Dr. Neil Ferguson of Imperial College London, an epidemiologist who from the start was keen to suggest that a lockdown be implemented in England. With the mathematical modeling he made, in mid-March Ferguson predicted the death toll due to the coronavirus in the UK would reach 510,000 people if no lockdown was tightly applied. This prediction is what makes many parties panic. According to Ratna, Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who initially believed in the herd immunity scenario, eventually shifted to trusting Ferguson to apply the regional quarantine alias total lockdown. And, the fact was that, as of Wednesday (24/6/2020), Worldometer data recorded the number of positive cases in the UK at 306,210, of whom 42,927 had died. It is very low compared to the 510,000 infections according to Ferguson’s prediction if the lockdown was not implemented.

Menyikapi Pemodelan Pandemi

Di tengah pandemi yang hingga sekarang terus merundung pikiran kita, yang diperlukan adalah sinergi dari semua sektor. Eksperimen demi eksperimen, termasuk kekeliruan dan kegagalan dalam proses, tetap bermanfaat. Tulisan Ratna Megawangi, ”Korona dan Statistik Kepanikan” (Kompas, 20/6/2020) menarik diperbincangkan. Artikel itu bernada menggugat prediksi penyebaran korona dengan pemodelan matematis yang banyak disodorkan para ahli. Secara khusus, Ratna mengulas Dr Neil Ferguson dari Imperial College London, epidemiolog yang sejak awal getol menyarankan agar karantina wilayah diterapkan di Inggris. Dengan pemodelan matematis yang dibuatnya, pertengahan Maret lalu, Ferguson memprediksi angka kematian akibat korona di Inggris akan mencapai 510.000 orang jika tak diterapkan karantina wilayah ketat. Prediksi inilah yang membuat banyak pihak panik. Menurut Ratna, PM Boris Johnson yang semula percaya pada skenario kekebalan kelompok, akhirnya bergeser jadi memercayai Ferguson sehingga menerapkan karantina wilayah alias total lockdown.