Artikel Ilmiah

Hematological Profile of Mice After Ethyl Acetate Extract of Fungus Comb of Indo-Malayan Termite (Macrotermes gilvus Hagen) Mound Supplementation in Regulating Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory Response

ABSTRACT Introduction: Termitomyces sp. is an edible fungal species commonly found in tropical forests in Africa and Southeast Asia. It is consumed as an immunomodulatory agent to enhance the immune system. This study explored the hematological profile of ethyl acetate extract of fungus comb(EAEFC) on mice’s inflammatory response induced by intraperitoneally-injected lipopolysaccharide. Methods: An experimental study with a post-test-only control group design using BALB/C mice(n = 24, bodyweight/BW:25-30 grams) was conducted. The animals were randomly allocated into 4 groups, each consisting of 6 mice, and received substance(s) via gavage. Groups I and III received 5% Dimethyl Sulfoxide(DMSO) in water, groups II and IV received 500mg/kg BW EAEFC in 5% DMSO. On day 15, Group I and II were injected intraperitoneally with 5 ml/kg BW saline, whereas Group III and IV with 10 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide(LPS) in 5 ml/kg BW saline. After three hours, the mice were sacrificed; their blood was collected, and a hematological profile was observed. The results were displayed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), and the differences between groups were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

Antioxidant Activity of Fungus Comb Extracts Isolated from Indo-Malayan Termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae)

Abstract Indonesian termites are one of the wealthiest biological resources considering their very high species diversity (300 species) and extensive geographical distribution in the Indonesian mainland. However, its potential as a source of bioactive compounds has not been fully explored. One of the endemic termite sub-families of Indonesian, Macrotermitinae (Isoptera: Termitidae), has a food source in the form of fungal nodules that grow and spread in a particular structure in the termite nest that is shaped like a mammalian brain called a fungus comb, which likely serves as a source of bioactive compounds. This study aims to analyze the potential of fungus comb from an Indonesian Macrotermitinae sub-family species as a source of antioxidants. Antioxidant activity was tested on four different extracts of fungus comb (EFC), namely hexane extract, ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract and water extract, using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS•+ (2,2′-azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulphonate]) radicals.

Selectively mixed matrix hemodialysis membrane for adequate clearance of p-cresol by the incorporation of imprinted zeolite

Abstract The adequacy in uremic toxin removal upon hemodialysis treatment is essential in patients with kidney failure diseases as poor removal leads to heart failure, hypertension, and stroke. The combination of adsorption and diffusion processes has become very advantageous for hemodialysis membranes. By this mechanism, water-soluble uremic toxins (WSUTs) and protein-bounded uremic toxins (PBUTs) could be removed at one time. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a novel imprinted zeolite by p-cresol (IZC) and then incorporated it into polyethersulfone (PES) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) to produce hollow fiber mixed matrix membrane (HF-MMM). The IZC proved to be sensitive in attracting the adsorbate, classifying it as having a strong adsorption behavior.

Asymptomatic COVID-19 Patient with a Subtle Hypercoagulable State and Fluctuating D-dimer Level

Abstract Background: COVID-19 can infect an asymptomatic person silently without any overt symptoms despite diffuse blood clots throughout the body. Clot formation is induced by COVID-19 associated coagulopathy that can cause a high mortality rate. D-dimer, a fairly decisive marker for the coagulopathy event, is physiologically a marker of the fibrinolysis process. The increase of D-dimers in COVID-19 cases must be followed up because it relates to the initiation of a cytokine storm. Case presentation: We report an asymptomatic patient with sudden D-dimer elevation who received anticoagulant therapy. After three days of heparin administration, D-dimer results became normal and anticoagulant therapy was stopped. However, on the 12th day, the D-dimer level rebounded back and was followed by an increase of hs-C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, IL-6, although SARS-CoV-2 PCR result became negative. A hyperglycaemic reaction and a sudden increase of HbA1C was observed in the patient. After three weeks D-dimer had returned to normal levels, and so did the other markers. The patient recovered fully and still no symptoms were obvious.

Antimicrobial activities of fungus comb extracts isolated from Indomalayan termite (Macrotermes gilvus Hagen) mound

Abstract Incorporating antimicrobial components into food packaging materials can prevent microbial contamination. Fungus combs could be an alternative source of natural antimicrobial agents. In this study, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were obtained from fungus combs isolated from Indomalayan termite (Macrotermes gilvus Hagen) mound. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage microorganisms including Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution. Results showed that ethyl acetate extract formed the largest diameter inhibition zone for all tested bacteria and fungi, exhibited antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively, and suppressed A. flavus and A. niger with an MIC value of 0.78 mg/mL.