Chemical Components of Fungus Comb from Indo-Malayan Termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen Mound and Its Bioactivity against Wood-Staining Fungi

Abstract Recently, the architectural and physical properties of the fungus comb from subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae) mounds had been studied and it is important to determine its chemical profile as well as to evaluate its anti-staining-fungi activity. The results showed that fungus comb of M. gilvus has a high crude ash (30.57%), fiber (25.46%), starch (7.76%), protein (5.80%, 5.53% amino acid), acid-insoluble ash (3.45%), and fat (0.73%). It also contained phenol hydroquinone, steroids, terpenoids, and saponin compounds. Seventeen amino acids were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, of which arginine, leucine, glutamate, and aspartic acid were the majority. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the n-hexane extract consists of several types of fatty acid derivatives. Meanwhile, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts were primarily phenol groups with 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) at the highest relative concentration.

A rare case: Vesicoureteral reflux in Indonesian young adult with neurogenic bladder and chronic kidney disease stage 4

Abstract Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adolescence and young adult. It can be a congenital or an acquired anomaly and its uncommon in adult life.Case presentation: A 19th years old male with neurogenic bladder, VUR grade 4, CKD stage 4, malnutrition, and short stature. Radiological examinations show a spastic neurogenic bladder, cystitis, right VUR grade 4. Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) results were bilateral severe hydronephrosis due to post-renal causes. This patient had a history of myelocele excision at the age of 1.5 years. He had recurrent urinary tract infection with CKD stage 4.Discussion: The diagnosis of VUR and neurogenic bladder in CKD stage 4 is a rare case in nephrology.Conclusion: Indonesian male confirms of diagnosis VUR grade 4, neurogenic bladder, and CKD stage 4.Keywords: Vesicoureteral reflux, Neurogenic bladder, Chronic kidney disease

Learning from New Variant Breaking into the Country's Gates

If the government is serious about tightening the mobility of citizens, the entry gate for foreign nationals should also be strictly guarded. Because, through the country's gate, a new variant of the virus from abroad enters. The "half-hearted lockdown" policy must face the harsh reality. When the implementation of the emergency community activity restrictions (PPKM) was almost over, the Covid-19 rampage was even more intense. The optimism of the Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs and Investment Luhut Pandjaitan, who was appointed by President Jokowi as the commander to lead this special mission to deal with the second wave of Covid-19, was wrong. Instead of gently sloping towards the target of below 10,000 cases of transmission per day, it skyrocketed beyond 50,000. On July 15, 2021, the daily number of positive cases was 56,757 and 982 cases died. In fact, when the emergency PPKM began to be implemented on July 3, 2021, there were "new" 27,913 cases and 493 deaths. More than double!

Stop Accidental Herd Immunity

  'God's SELECTION. God is choosing. Who continues to live and who is considered enough'. This is the last post of Bambang Purwoko, a lecturer at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences and the Head of the UGM Papua Task Force on his Facebook page, Sunday (4/7/2021), who was all at that time. Ten days later, Mr. Bambang died. Hopefully he had died with blessing (husnul khatimah). Previously, the deceased had posted his worries. 'Anomaly? The epidemic is getting worse, but the streets and public places are getting livelier.” That is the reflection of Mr. Purwoko before he died, which is very appropriate in describing the conditions in mid-2021. The posts aptly reflected this mid-2021 crisis. The second wave of Covid-19 that has plagued our country had to be controlled. President Jokowi had imposed an emergency community activity restriction (PPKM) on July 3-20 2021 and extended it until July 25, 2021, and had been extended again until August 2, 2021. When the emergency PPKM began, the daily additional rate was 27,913 people. The President's target was that the cases would fall below 10 thousand people per day.

Organizing the Reason of Pandemic Management

Our nation is one of those who easily become sensitive, especially to things related to the Covid-19 pandemic. They were frustrated because they were forbidden to travel inland (mudik), but they broke through the ban on inland traveling. The result was a tremendous explosion of Covid-19 cases. The government also pulled the 'hand brake' with the implementation of emergency community activity restrictions (PPKM) at that time. The explosion was compounded by the 'foreign factor', the delta variant from India. The Central Indonesian Medical Association (Ikatan Dokter Indonesia/IDI), through its Deputy General Chair Slamet Budiarto, said this variant was the main trigger for the current bad situation. This variant was brought by foreigners or Indonesians who returned home because the country's gates were not closed while the people were prohibited from traveling inland between regions. The combination of the factors of inland-traveling break-ins and foreign variants had proven to be deadly.